Modified Stem of a Plant

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The plant shown above has spiky projections coming out of its stem. This modification to the stem is so that it will be protected if something tries to cut off the stem or eat the stem (and leaves). Plants frequently modify their stems because they are storing nutrients and stood or they are defending themselves. Plant stem modifications can be above ground, like in this plant or in vines, or below ground, as in tubers and bulbs.

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