Fermentation is the process in which an organism in an anaerobic environment can continue the production of ATP via the direct oxidation of NADH,thus continually renewing the supply of high energy electron carrier compounds necessary for the sustainment of substrate level phosphorylation via glycolysis, with the pyruvate produced in the former,without oxygen, metabolized to other compounds, such as ethanol or lactic acid via reduction by the electrons removed from the now regenerate NAD+.Although Fermentation is usually resorted to by cells which,deprived of the oxygen which is pivotal for the functioning of oxidative phosphorylation by acting as the final electron acceptor for the electron transport chain, certain bacteria and microorganisms,such as the microorganism yeast, prefer fermentation to oxidative phosphorylation. Yeast permeating grape-juice are responsible for the production of ethanol which transmutes the brew into one of humanities oldest vices:wine.


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