The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis are chemical reactions converting CO2 and other compounds into glucose; all taking place in the stroma. The Calvin Cycle makes up the three parts of the light-independent reactions, which include carbon fixation, reduction reactions, and RuBP regeneration. The Calvin Cycle is mainly a series of biochemical redox reactions. In the first stage of this cycle a CO2 is incorporated and is morphed into one of two G3P, using up 2 ATP and 2 NADPH (created in light-independent cycle). Next RuBisCO catalyzes the carboxylation of RuBP in two steps, resulting in 3-PGA (phosphoglyceric acid). Then the enzyme Phosphoglycerate Kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of the 3-PGA, making 1 3BPGA and ADP its product. G3P is then produced and NADPH is oxidized, turning into NaDP+. In the second step of the Calvin Cycle RuBP is regenerated; 5 G3P produce 3 RuBP using 3 ATP molecules. The FInal results of the Calvin Cycle are the productions of 2 G3P, 3 ADP, 2 NADP+; in order for this process to continue there must be surplus for the G3P molecule, thus making the cycle to occur three times in order for it to keep occurring for future use.