C4 Plant

C4 Plant

C4 plants like corn, prominent in arid conditions where the enzyme RuBiscos tendency to incur photorespiration becomes more pronounced in relation to sweltering temperatures, have adapted to formulate metabolic pathways which fix carbon into a 4 carbon compound and possess chloroplasts in bundle sheath cells, allowing it to more efficiently conserve photosynthetic material by immersing RuBisco in CO2. The metabolic pathway ultimately synthesizes C02 to oxalocetate and subsequently Malate,which is broken down, like in CAM plants, to CO2 and pyruvate used for the respective light independent reactions and the calvin cycle. As C4 plants possess chloroplasts outside of the mesophyll, the Malate produced in the former is transferred to isolated chloroplasts in bundle sheath cells, where it can be decomposed in an environment where the CO2 can be utilized in dark reactions where its fixation is not disrupted via photorespiration.Although bearing a ratio of approximately 30 ATP spent per Glucose molecule formed rather then the 18 ATP of C3 photosynthesis, it is extremely productive in arid environments where irresponsible oxygenation by RuBisco to RuBP can reduce the efficiency of Glucose production by up to 50 percent.


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